Glossary of terms that may be encountered in the Apple Index's descriptions of apple varieties:
Apples come in a wide variety of sizes:
|Very Small||below 35 mm|
|Below Medium||50-60 mm|
|Above Medium||70-80 mm|
|Very Large||95-110 mm|
|Extremely Large||over 110 mm|
Uniformity indicates whether the apple sizes within the variety are uniform or variable.
In apples, a distinction is made between the apple's ground color and its over-color. Undercolors are typically a shade of green, yellow, or nearly white.
Apple overcolors are typically a shade of red, ranging from pink to scarlet to crimson.
This describes how the overcolor is distributed over the base color. Descriptors include:
Russet is a brown scarring sometimes seen on the apple's skin. It is typically a genetic trait in certain varieties. Russet is described by how widespread it is on the skin:
Bloom is a whitish overcolor on the surface of the apple. It is described by amount (much, medium, or little) and kind (waxy, greasy). Amount is determined by scraping the bloom off with a sharp knife.
Skin is described as thick, medium, or thin.
Skin texture is described as tough, medium, or tender.
Apple skin can have a wide variety of textures. These are commonly described as:
Dots are extremely common on apple skins, and can be helpful in describing the apple appearance. First, dots are described by how obvious they are on the skin:
By form or shape:
- Not Uniform
and by prominence:
The flesh of the apple is described by:
and by Juiciness:
Descriptions for apple flavor are determined by the ratio of sugars to acid.
- Acid (tends to be a tart or bitter apple)
- Sub-Acid (not a tart apple)
- Sweet (a very sweet apple with little to no tartness to cut it)
Additional definitions and clarifications:
Family Apple - A unique apple passed down within a single family like a family heirloom
Local Apple - An apple variety that was shared through a community
Historical Apple - Any apple for which there is a written record
Synonyms - many of the varieties listed in the index has a name followed by a list of additional names in parentheses. These are other names by which this variety has been known.
Ripening times - The ripening times listed are when the apples will ripen in central North Carolina and north central South Carolina (both Zone 7B)